Seed & Germplasm Sources
The following is a selection of online resources for obtaining the seeds and
plant materials of halophytes and other salt-tolerant plants. Refer to
the Salt-Tolerant Plants page for a descriptive listing of existing and
Commercial Seed Companies
Germplasm Collections & Public Seed Banks
Test Kits & Handbooks
Commercial Seed Companies
UN Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) maintains a searchable database of commercial seed sources by crop
(specific and category) and country: the database includes Acacia, Agave,
Agropyron, Albizia, Atriplex, Azadirachta, Cassia, Ceratonia, Chloris, Cocos,
Crambe, Elymus, Eucalyptus, Hibiscus, Kochia, Lotus, Manilkara, Morus, Opuntia,
Parthenium, Paspalum, Phoenix, Prosopis, Sesbania, Simmondsia, Tamarix and
AgroForester Tropical Seeds (Hawaii) provides an assortment of Acacia,
Albizia, Leucaena, Pithecellobium, and Sesbania.
Agroforestry Research Trust (UK) has a selection of shrubs and trees
including Atriplex, Ceratonia, Crambe, Elaeagnus, Hippophae, Juncus, Lotus,
Lycium, Morus, Phragmites, Scirpus, Shepardia, and Zizyphus.
Anderson’s Seed Company (California) offers a selection of palms and
cycads, eucalyptus, cacti, and succulents as well as ornamentals and California
Arboretum at Flagstaff (Arizona) has links to many wholesale, retail,
and commercial native plant and seed sources including halophytic grasses,
succulents and cacti, shrubs and trees as well as native/non-native species for
landscaping and reclamation.
Association of Florida
(Florida) is a
non-profit organization whose membership includes nurseries, landscape
architects and designers, environmental consulting services, nursery suppliers,
and individuals in related professions. Links to seed suppliers of coastal
halophytes include offerings of Aster, Avicennia, Batis, Chrysobalanus,
Coccoloba, Conocarpus, Distichlis, Hibiscus, Laguncularia, Paspalum, Scripus,
Sesuvium, Spartina, Sporobolus, Rhizophora, and Uniola.
Australian Tree Seed Center (Australia) has a comprehensive listing of
seed suppliers offering native shrubs and trees such as Acacia, Casuarina, and
B & T Seeds (France) is a commercial supplier with an extensive
collection of salt-tolerant germplasm from all over the world. These include
Acacia, Atriplex, Cakile, Casuarina, Eucalyptus, Halimodendron, Halosarcia,
Juncus, Kosteletzkya, Maireana, Melaleuca, Phragmites, Puccinellia, Suaeda, and
ConservaSeed (California) has a number of conservation and reclamation
plants including Atriplex, Distichlis, Elymus, Grindelia, Hordeum, Juncus,
Krascheninnikovia, Larrea, Lotus, and Scirpus.
Fruit Spirit Botanical Gardens (Australia) carries numerous varieties of
Acacia, Albizia, Atriplex, Azadirachta, Basella, Butia, Capparis, Carissa,
Cassia, Cereus, Elaeagnus, Eucalyptus, Grewia, Hibiscus, Leucaena, Melaleuca,
Morus, Phragmites, and Solanum.
Gautam Global (India) offers seeds of Acacia, Adhatoda, Albizia,
Azadirachta, Balanites, Butea, Capparis, Cassia, Casuarina, Catharanthus,
Cenchrus, Cocos, Eucalyptus, Leucaena, Manilkara, Medicago, Morus, Phoenix,
Pithecellobium, Pongamia, Salvadora, Santalum, Sapium, Sesbania, Terminalia,
Thespesia, Trifolium, and Ziziphus.
Green Dealer (Kentucky) carries exotic seeds from around the world
including Acacia, Casuarina, Ceratonia, Elaeagnus, Elymus, Leucaena, Opuntia,
Phoenix, Prosopis, Simmondesia, and Zizania.
Herbiseed Specialist Seeds (UK) produces seeds of over 600 wild species
including Aster, Atriplex, Cakile, Chenopodium, Echinochloa, Kochia, Leucaena,
Phragmites, Salsola, Scirpus, and Typha.
Heritage Seeds (Australia) offers a wide variety of pasture grasses and
legumes for fodder and reclamation including Agropyron, Atriplex, Cenchrus,
Chloris, Cynodon Leucaena, Lotus, Paspalum, Pennisetum, and Trifolium.
Jardin Naturel (France)
specializes in exotic tropical plants and seeds such as cacti, succulents,
palms, and agave as well as halophytic grasses, shrubs, and trees.
Jim's Seeds, Weeds,
and Trees (Australia) features
more than 300 plant species, including wildflowers, grasses, trees and shrubs
many of which are salt-tolerant.
KPR – Gardeners Club (Slovakia) offers more than 3,000 species including
palms and cycads, shrubs, and trees including extensive seed collections from
Thailand, Australia, India, and Europe.
Las Pilitas Nursery (California) offers a good selection of native
California plants including Acacia, Agave, Atriplex, Batis, Elymus, Grindelia,
Juncus, Larrea, Opuntia, Prosopis, Salicornia, Scirpus, Simmondsia, Solanum,
Sporobolus, Suaeda, Triglochin, Typha, and Yucca.
Pacific Tree Farms (California) stocks a variety of temperate and
tropical seeds and seedlings including Acacia, Azadirachta, Butia, Capparis,
Carissa, Ceratonia, Eucalyptus, Leptospermum, Leucaena, Manilkara, Melaleuca,
Phoenix, Sapium, Simmondsia, and Ziziphus.
Pacific Tropical Gardens (Hawaii) offers a wide range of salt-tolerant
tropical plants for both edible and ornamental uses including
Azadirachta, Carissa, Calophyllum, Leucaena, Manilkara, Morinda, and Sesbania.
Plants of the Southwest (New Mexico) has a selection of desert plants
including Atriplex, Larrea, Shepardia, Simmondsia, and Sporobolus.
Sea Buckthorn Nursery (Canada) offers a number of Hippophae
rhamnoides cultivars for orchards, landscaping, erosion control and
reclamation, medicinal and cosmetic purposes.
Seedman.com (Missouri) carries a variety of seeds from around the world
including Acacia, Agave, Albizzia,
Azadirachta, Capparis, Carissa, Ceratonia, Elaeagnus,
Eucalyptus, Hippophae, Leucaena, Lotus, Manilkara, Melaleuca,
Opuntia, Phoenix, Pongamia, Prosopis, Terminalia, Yucca, and Zizyphus.
Sheffield's Seed Company (New York) is a major supplier of tree and
flowering plant seeds in North America. Their selection of drought- and
salt-tolerant varieties includes Acacia, Atriplex, Elaeagnus, Hippophae, Morus,
Trade Winds Fruit (California) offers a fruit trees including a
selection of Acacia, Capparis, Carissa, Ceratonia, Cereus, Morinda, Opuntia, and
Tropics Center (UK)
imports and distributes seeds, seedlings, and palms from around the world
including a number of exotic collections.
Unusual Herbs & Edibles (UK) carries edible plant seeds from all over
the world including Atriplex, Basella, Capparis, Ceratonia, Crambe, Lycium, and
Yuvraj Seeds (India) offers a wide range of salt-tolerant South Asian
varieties for timber, fodder and green manure, fruit, vegetable and oil-bearing,
medicinal and industrial plants. These include Azadirachta, Balanites, Capparis,
Carissa, Cassia, Catharanthus, Cenchrus, Cocos, Cynodon, Leucaena, Manilkara,
Panicum, Pennisetium, Phoenix, Pithecellobium, Pongamia, Salvadora, Santalum,
Sesbania, Solanum, Terminalia, Trifolium, and Ziziphus.
Germplasm Collections & Public Seed
Seeds are generally
provided free of charge in limited quantities; see individual website for terms
and conditions. Links to other potential germplasm and seed sources can
also be found on the Current Research and Salt-Tolerant Plants pages.
Australian Plant Genetic Resources Information System (AusPGRIS)
provides common access to information on germplasm collections by enabling
searches for information relating to the identity, origin, characteristics, and
evaluation of accessions held by the Centers. These collections comprise
130,000 accessions of crop, forage, horticulture, and woody tree germplasm of
importance to food, agriculture and forestry. They include wild species,
landraces, cultivars, hybrid parents, advanced breeding lines, and genetic
stocks with special characteristics.
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and
its eleven Centers hold more than half a million samples of crop, forage, and
agroforestry genetic resources. These germplasm collections include farmers'
varieties, advanced and old cultivars, breeding lines, and the related wild
species of the major crops of importance to global food security and, in
particular, to the well being and livelihoods of people in developing countries.
Danida Forest Seed Company (Denmark) is a non-profit organization that
sponsors a seed bank with a wide variety of Acacia, Eucalyptus, and Prosopis.
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
(IPGRI) maintains a number of databases with summary information on ex situ
germplasm collections worldwide. The data includes organizations holding
germplasm and information such as species names, number of accessions per
species, type of accessions, etc. (more than 5 million accessions worldwide are
John Innes Center (UK)
maintains a number of important germplasm collections which serve to underpin
research and commercial interests within the UK as well as being the focus of
research projects in their own right. Material from these working collections
is available on request to research, academic, and commercial communities
(subject to availability).
National Clonal Germplasm Repository (California) is a public seedbank
that collects and preserves invaluable plant genetic resources of citrus, date
palms, and related species.
National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS) is a cooperative effort by
public and private organizations to protect the genetic diversity of plants.
The system has links to all US germplasm repositories and collections as well as
the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database.
Native Seeds/SEARCH (Arizona) is a non-profit organization that houses
the seeds of crops and wild plants (over 2,000 accessions) traditionally used as
food, fiber, and dyes by prehistoric and more recent cultures inhabiting the
arid southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico.
Royal Botanic Gardens Millennium Seed Bank Project (UK) is an
international collaborative plant conservation initiative. This worldwide
effort aims to safeguard 24,000 plant species from around the globe against
World Agroforestry Centre (Tree Seed Suppliers Directory) contributes to
the informed use of tree germplasm, which is an essential component of
sustainable forestry and agroforestry practices.
Salinity Test Kits & Handbooks
Soil Salinity Test Handbooks
(A Project of the Agricultural Bureau of South Australia) is focused on
improving farmers' knowledge and adoption of good soil management practices.
Schleiff, Uwe (2003)
Salinity and Soil Fertility Kit: A Portable Field Lab for Soil, Water and Plant
University of Florida
Soil pH and Electrical Conductivity: A
County Extension Soil Laboratory Manual
USDA Natural Resources
Conservation Service (1999) “The
Soil Quality Test Kit Guide”.
DC: Soil Quality
Soil/Water Test Kits and
Appropriate Technology Transfer for
Rural Areas (ATTRA) provides an extensive listing of alternative soil
testing labs in the US and supplies that support the special analytical needs of
farmers using organic or sustainable production methods.
APPS Laboratories (Australia)
offers laboratory analysis of waters and soils as well as the sale of
instruments and test kits for home, farm, horticulture, and agriculture.
Australian Perry Agricultural Laboratory (APAL) markets independent soil
analysis (Albrecht Method) for all agricultural industries, including amenity
horticulture and home gardens.
Cyber-Help for Organic Farmers offers an extensive listing of soil
testing services in the
Dr. Soil & Water Test Kit, distributed by ICT International (Australia),
offers a portable tool box for assessing salinity, acidity, and acid sulfate
EnviroEquip (Australia and Asia-Pacific) offers various products for
soil and water sampling and monitoring.
Frostproof Growers (Florida) offers a variety of horticultural
products including soil and water salinity measurement tools.
Hanna Instruments (Canada) the world's leading manufacturer of
electro-analytical instruments for soil and water.
Mother Earth News offers a directory of soil testing labs in the US.
Mottes develops, manufactures, and markets tensiometers, soil solution
extractors and testing kits, to the benefit of every grower.
Quality Assurance Supplies (Virginia) distributes portable water/soil
testers and meters.
Spectrum Horticulture (California) provides environmentally sound,
economical and effective horticulture and water quality solutions for home, farm
These databases contain
references to the wild habitat and researchers of salt-tolerant plants that may
be helpful in sourcing halophytic seed and plant materials.
Halophyte Database - Salt-Tolerant Plants & Their Uses
A full description of 1,883 halophytic species searchable by
Haloph: A Data Base of Salt Tolerant Plants of the World
1,560 species with their maximum reported salinity tolerance and economic
available from the Arid Lands Information Center at the University of Arizona
Plants Tolerant of Arid, or Semi-Arid, Conditions with Non-Food Constituents of
Tropical Products Institute, Overseas Development Administration
Salt Tolerance and Crop Potential of Halophytes
Edward P. Glenn and J. Jed Brown in Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences
Salt Tolerant Plants 90: List of Mangroves, Halophytes and Salt-Tolerant
Boeer, Benno and Alfred Stille: University of Osnabrueck, Germany
Halophyte Listing ~ Plant Physiology, Department of Biology at the University of
A descriptive listing with a focus on salt-tolerant plants for landscaping
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