Biosalinity Awareness Project

...understanding the impact of salinization and implications for future agriculture

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Seed & Germplasm Sources
The following is a selection of online resources for obtaining the seeds and plant materials of halophytes and other salt-tolerant plants.  Refer to the Salt-Tolerant Plants page for a descriptive listing of existing and potential crops.

Commercial Seed Companies

Germplasm Collections & Public Seed Banks

Salinity Test Kits & Handbooks

Halophyte Databases
 

Commercial Seed Companies

UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) maintains a searchable database of commercial seed sources by crop (specific and category) and country: the database includes Acacia, Agave, Agropyron, Albizia, Atriplex, Azadirachta, Cassia, Ceratonia, Chloris, Cocos, Crambe, Elymus, Eucalyptus, Hibiscus, Kochia, Lotus, Manilkara, Morus, Opuntia, Parthenium, Paspalum, Phoenix, Prosopis, Sesbania, Simmondsia, Tamarix and Ziziphus.

AgroForester Tropical Seeds (Hawaii) provides an assortment of Acacia, Albizia, Leucaena, Pithecellobium, and Sesbania.

Agroforestry Research Trust (UK) has a selection of shrubs and trees including Atriplex, Ceratonia, Crambe, Elaeagnus, Hippophae, Juncus, Lotus, Lycium, Morus, Phragmites, Scirpus, Shepardia, and Zizyphus.

Anderson’s Seed Company (California) offers a selection of palms and cycads, eucalyptus, cacti, and succulents as well as ornamentals and California native plants.

Arboretum at Flagstaff (Arizona) has links to many wholesale, retail, and commercial native plant and seed sources including halophytic grasses, succulents and cacti, shrubs and trees as well as native/non-native species for landscaping and reclamation.

Association of Florida Native Nurseries (Florida) is a non-profit organization whose membership includes nurseries, landscape architects and designers, environmental consulting services, nursery suppliers, and individuals in related professions.  Links to seed suppliers of coastal halophytes include offerings of Aster, Avicennia, Batis, Chrysobalanus, Coccoloba, Conocarpus, Distichlis, Hibiscus, Laguncularia, Paspalum, Scripus, Sesuvium, Spartina, Sporobolus, Rhizophora, and Uniola.

Australian Tree Seed Center (Australia) has a comprehensive listing of seed suppliers offering native shrubs and trees such as Acacia, Casuarina, and Eucalyptus.

B & T Seeds (France) is a commercial supplier with an extensive collection of salt-tolerant germplasm from all over the world.  These include Acacia, Atriplex, Cakile, Casuarina, Eucalyptus, Halimodendron, Halosarcia, Juncus, Kosteletzkya, Maireana, Melaleuca, Phragmites, Puccinellia, Suaeda, and Triglochin.

ConservaSeed (California) has a number of conservation and reclamation plants including Atriplex, Distichlis, Elymus, Grindelia, Hordeum, Juncus, Krascheninnikovia, Larrea, Lotus, and Scirpus.

Fruit Spirit Botanical Gardens (Australia) carries numerous varieties of Acacia, Albizia, Atriplex, Azadirachta, Basella, Butia, Capparis, Carissa, Cassia, Cereus, Elaeagnus, Eucalyptus, Grewia, Hibiscus, Leucaena, Melaleuca, Morus, Phragmites, and Solanum.

Gautam Global (India) offers seeds of Acacia, Adhatoda, Albizia, Azadirachta, Balanites, Butea, Capparis, Cassia, Casuarina, Catharanthus, Cenchrus, Cocos, Eucalyptus, Leucaena, Manilkara, Medicago, Morus, Phoenix, Pithecellobium, Pongamia, Salvadora, Santalum, Sapium, Sesbania, Terminalia, Thespesia, Trifolium, and Ziziphus.

Green Dealer (Kentucky) carries exotic seeds from around the world including Acacia, Casuarina, Ceratonia, Elaeagnus, Elymus, Leucaena, Opuntia, Phoenix, Prosopis, Simmondesia, and Zizania.

Herbiseed Specialist Seeds (UK) produces seeds of over 600 wild species including Aster, Atriplex, Cakile, Chenopodium, Echinochloa, Kochia, Leucaena, Phragmites, Salsola, Scirpus, and Typha.

Heritage Seeds (Australia) offers a wide variety of pasture grasses and legumes for fodder and reclamation including Agropyron, Atriplex, Cenchrus, Chloris, Cynodon Leucaena, Lotus, Paspalum, Pennisetum, and Trifolium.

Jardin Naturel (France) specializes in exotic tropical plants and seeds such as cacti, succulents, palms, and agave as well as halophytic grasses, shrubs, and trees.

Jim's Seeds, Weeds, and Trees (Australia) features
more than 300 plant species, including wildflowers, grasses, trees and shrubs many of which are salt-tolerant.

KPR – Gardeners Club (Slovakia) offers more than 3,000 species including palms and cycads, shrubs, and trees including extensive seed collections from Thailand, Australia, India, and Europe.

Las Pilitas Nursery (California) offers a good selection of native California plants including Acacia, Agave, Atriplex, Batis, Elymus, Grindelia, Juncus, Larrea, Opuntia, Prosopis, Salicornia, Scirpus, Simmondsia, Solanum, Sporobolus, Suaeda, Triglochin, Typha, and Yucca.

Pacific Tree Farms (California) stocks a variety of temperate and tropical seeds and seedlings including Acacia, Azadirachta, Butia, Capparis, Carissa, Ceratonia, Eucalyptus, Leptospermum, Leucaena, Manilkara, Melaleuca, Phoenix, Sapium, Simmondsia, and Ziziphus.

Pacific Tropical Gardens (Hawaii) offers a wide range of salt-tolerant tropical plants for both edible and ornamental uses including Azadirachta, Carissa, Calophyllum, Leucaena, Manilkara, Morinda, and Sesbania.

Plants of the Southwest (New Mexico) has a selection of desert plants including Atriplex, Larrea, Shepardia, Simmondsia, and Sporobolus.

Sea Buckthorn Nursery (Canada) offers a number of Hippophae rhamnoides cultivars for orchards, landscaping, erosion control and reclamation, medicinal and cosmetic purposes.

Seedman.com (Missouri) carries a variety of seeds from around the world including Acacia, Agave, Albizzia, Azadirachta, Capparis, Carissa, Ceratonia, Elaeagnus, Eucalyptus, Hippophae, Leucaena, Lotus, Manilkara, Melaleuca, Opuntia, Phoenix, Pongamia, Prosopis, Terminalia, Yucca, and Zizyphus.

Sheffield's Seed Company (New York) is a major supplier of tree and flowering plant seeds in North America.  Their selection of drought- and salt-tolerant varieties includes Acacia, Atriplex, Elaeagnus, Hippophae, Morus, and Simmondsia.

Trade Winds Fruit (California) offers a fruit trees including a selection of Acacia, Capparis, Carissa, Ceratonia, Cereus, Morinda, Opuntia, and Ziziphus.

Tropics Center (
UK) imports and distributes seeds, seedlings, and palms from around the world including a number of exotic collections.

Unusual Herbs & Edibles (UK) carries edible plant seeds from all over the world including Atriplex, Basella, Capparis, Ceratonia, Crambe, Lycium, and Simmondsia.

Yuvraj Seeds (India) offers a wide range of salt-tolerant South Asian varieties for timber, fodder and green manure, fruit, vegetable and oil-bearing, medicinal and industrial plants.  These include Azadirachta, Balanites, Capparis, Carissa, Cassia, Catharanthus, Cenchrus, Cocos, Cynodon, Leucaena, Manilkara, Panicum, Pennisetium, Phoenix, Pithecellobium, Pongamia, Salvadora, Santalum, Sesbania, Solanum, Terminalia, Trifolium, and Ziziphus.

Germplasm Collections & Public Seed Banks

Seeds are generally provided free of charge in limited quantities; see individual website for terms and conditions.  Links to other potential germplasm and seed sources can also be found on the Current Research and Salt-Tolerant Plants pages.

Australian Plant Genetic Resources Information System (AusPGRIS) provides common access to information on germplasm collections by enabling searches for information relating to the identity, origin, characteristics, and evaluation of accessions held by the Centers.  These collections comprise 130,000 accessions of crop, forage, horticulture, and woody tree germplasm of importance to food, agriculture and forestry. They include wild species, landraces, cultivars, hybrid parents, advanced breeding lines, and genetic stocks with special characteristics.

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and its eleven Centers hold more than half a million samples of crop, forage, and agroforestry genetic resources.  These germplasm collections include farmers' varieties, advanced and old cultivars, breeding lines, and the related wild species of the major crops of importance to global food security and, in particular, to the well being and livelihoods of people in developing countries.

Danida Forest Seed Company (Denmark) is a non-profit organization that sponsors a seed bank with a wide variety of Acacia, Eucalyptus, and Prosopis. 

International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) maintains a number of databases with summary information on ex situ germplasm collections worldwide.  The data includes organizations holding germplasm and information such as species names, number of accessions per species, type of accessions, etc. (more than 5 million accessions worldwide are available).

John Innes Center (
UK) maintains a number of important germplasm collections which serve to underpin research and commercial interests within the UK as well as being the focus of research projects in their own right.  Material from these working collections is available on request to research, academic, and commercial communities (subject to availability).

National Clonal Germplasm Repository (California) is a public seedbank that collects and preserves invaluable plant genetic resources of citrus, date palms, and related species.

National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS) is a cooperative effort by public and private organizations to protect the genetic diversity of plants.  The system has links to all US germplasm repositories and collections as well as the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database.

Native Seeds/SEARCH (Arizona) is a non-profit organization that houses the seeds of crops and wild plants (over 2,000 accessions) traditionally used as food, fiber, and dyes by prehistoric and more recent cultures inhabiting the arid southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico. 

Royal Botanic Gardens Millennium Seed Bank Project (UK) is an international collaborative plant conservation initiative.  This worldwide effort aims to safeguard 24,000 plant species from around the globe against extinction.

World Agroforestry Centre (Tree Seed Suppliers Directory) contributes to the informed use of tree germplasm, which is an essential component of sustainable forestry and agroforestry practices.

Salinity Test Kits & Handbooks

Soil Salinity Test Handbooks

Better Soils
(A Project of the Agricultural Bureau of South Australia) is focused on improving farmers' knowledge and adoption of good soil management practices.

Schleiff, Uwe (2003) Salinity and Soil Fertility Kit: A Portable Field Lab for Soil, Water and Plant Analysis


University of Florida (1993) Soil pH and Electrical Conductivity: A County Extension Soil Laboratory Manual

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (1999) “The Soil Quality Test Kit Guide”. Washington, DC: Soil Quality Institute.

Soil/Water Test Kits and Laboratories

Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas
(ATTRA) provides an extensive listing of alternative soil testing labs in the US and supplies that support the special analytical needs of farmers using organic or sustainable production methods.

APPS Laboratories (Australia) offers laboratory analysis of waters and soils as well as the sale of instruments and test kits for home, farm, horticulture, and agriculture.

Australian Perry Agricultural Laboratory (APAL) markets independent soil analysis (Albrecht Method) for all agricultural industries, including amenity horticulture and home gardens.

Cyber-Help for Organic Farmers offers an extensive listing of soil testing services in the
US and Canada.

Dr. Soil & Water Test Kit, distributed by ICT International (Australia), offers a portable tool box for assessing salinity, acidity, and acid sulfate soil problems.

EnviroEquip (Australia and Asia-Pacific) offers various products for soil and water sampling and monitoring.

Frostproof Growers (Florida) offers a variety of horticultural products including soil and water salinity measurement tools.

Hanna Instruments (Canada) the world's leading manufacturer of electro-analytical instruments for soil and water.

Mother Earth News offers a directory of soil testing labs in the US.

Mottes develops, manufactures, and markets tensiometers, soil solution extractors and testing kits, to the benefit of every grower.

Quality Assurance Supplies (Virginia) distributes portable water/soil testers and meters.

Spectrum Horticulture (California) provides environmentally sound, economical and effective horticulture and water quality solutions for home, farm and industry. 

Halophyte Databases

These databases contain references to the wild habitat and researchers of salt-tolerant plants that may be helpful in sourcing halophytic seed and plant materials.

Halophyte Database - Salt-Tolerant Plants & Their Uses
A full description of 1,883 halophytic species searchable by family/genus/species

Haloph: A Data Base of Salt Tolerant Plants of the World
1,560 species with their maximum reported salinity tolerance and economic uses
available from the Arid Lands Information Center at the University of Arizona

Plants Tolerant of Arid, or Semi-Arid, Conditions with Non-Food Constituents of Potential Use
Tropical Products Institute, Overseas Development Administration

Salt Tolerance and Crop Potential of Halophytes
Edward P. Glenn and J. Jed Brown in Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences

Salt Tolerant Plants 90: List of Mangroves, Halophytes and Salt-Tolerant Plants
Boeer, Benno and Alfred Stille: University of Osnabrueck, Germany

Halophyte Listing ~ Plant Physiology, Department of Biology at the University of Osnabrueck
A descriptive listing with a focus on salt-tolerant plants for landscaping and conservation


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